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The National Cleaners Association

All cleaners are welcome to use different areas of the site, there is a Members Only area along with a Platinum Members Only Area. We hope you’ll consider joining our organization if you own a dry cleaning store, or are a supplier to our industry.

Our members have told us that we consistently add value, and help them with all of the issues that face them in business today. 

We also provide our members with Garment Care Alerts having to do with special garments that have found to be problematic in cleaning.

Members are also provided with an online Marketing Toolkit, that will help you pick up photos for ads or brochures, and also there are a number of hang tags you might want to download and print.

Cleaners Act Now!

DO NOT DELAY.  Check the dates on your permit NOW- Then visit the members only site and look under forms

NCA Events - From our Texcare Show to Brainstorming: our events are great to attend for learning, networking and finding out about the newest innovations.

NCA Classes -Download the schedule and application or visit the even calendar.

NCA Resources - Everything you might need from insurance to credits cards to websites are available to you at our various membership levels. Check out our members only lounge.

Advantages of Membership - Training classes, garments analysis, webinars, consulting: NCA (National Cleaners Association) is your personal advocate in the dry cleaning industry.

Coats For Kids 2023 Golf Outing

Planning for Brainstorming 2023- Secrets Royal Beach Call Ann for more information 212-967-3002

NCA Updates

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Are you having a hard time accessing the members only section? If you are you can download our instruction Download Now

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Does your state require training? Click here to check

NCA offers Sexual Harassment Training!
In New York state you MUST be trained yearly! 

Call Ann or Dawn @ 212-967-3002


Our members have told us that we consistently add value, and help them with all of the issues that face them in business today. We have a full dry cleaning facility for training newbies in our business as well as refresher courses for veteran dry cleaners.

Latest news

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  • 28 Nov 2022 11:47 AM | Anonymous


    16 November 2022


    • Half of surveyed luxury shoppers in the US are monitoring the market value of their luxury accessories — and more than half believe this value could appreciate.
    • Furthermore, 62 percent of surveyed luxury shoppers actively selling on resale sites have resold a luxury accessory for a profit.
    • The authenticity of these items are increasingly critical for the growth of luxury resale; physical authentication is now the most important feature to motivate surveyed shoppers to buy secondhand luxury fashion.



    BoF Insights | The Rise of Resale: Luxury as Currency

    This report was developed in partnership with eBay.

    As more and more consumers turn to the resale market to buy and sell their luxury handbags, watches and jewelry, the online luxury resale market is entering a new growth phase, building on the work that pioneers like eBay have been undertaking as e-commerce began taking hold. But what is behind the latest phase of growth?

    “The Rise of Resale: Luxury as Currency” is a new report from BoF Insights, developed in partnership with eBay, that investigates the behaviors of luxury shoppers, analyzing what they believe about how the value of their luxury purchases will evolve, and the implications of these beliefs on the luxury resale market.

    One emerging driver is the perception of luxury accessories, particularly high-end handbags, watches and jewelry, as an asset that can appreciate or at least be safe stores of value. This perception could very well explain some of the recent rise in resale activity as shoppers look to make a return on their purchases.

    The analysis is based on a proprietary, nationally representative survey of 1,000 consumers in the US and defines “luxury accessories” as designer handbags, fine watches with a retail value of at least $2,000 and jewellery with a retail value of at least $500.

    The research reveals that more than half of surveyed luxury shoppers believe the value of their luxury accessories could appreciate over time if they care for the condition of those items. Furthermore, half of surveyed US luxury shoppers check the current value of their luxury accessories — and as many as one-third do so at least once a year.

    Could investments in luxury accessories prove to be lucrative? For some shoppers, yes. 62 percent of the surveyed luxury shoppers who are active sellers on online resale platforms have sold a luxury accessory for more money than they originally bought it for.

    As luxury becomes an asset class, authentication naturally becomes more important. In fact, this research identifies physical authentication as the most important feature to motivate luxury shoppers to buy secondhand luxury accessories, especially as 25 percent of surveyed luxury shoppers believe they have or are uncertain if they have previously purchased a fake luxury accessory.

    For more insights like these, download the complete report by BoF Insights, produced in partnership with eBay, here:


  • 23 Nov 2022 9:59 AM | Anonymous

    Dye Crocking

    Dye crocking occurs when the dyestuffs break away from the surface of the fabric due to the incomplete penetration of the fibers, yarns, or fabric. When a fabric “crocks” the loss of color is more pronounced in the areas of the garment that are exposed to friction or abrasion during wear (collar, cuffs, pocket edges, underarms, elbows). If a fabric is susceptible to dye crocking, the “high points” of the garment such as the seams, selvedge, stitched or double layers of fabric will crock more severely than other portions of the garment.

    The crocked areas of the garment are seldom noticeable prior to the dry cleaning, laundering or wet cleaning processes. When the garment is processed, the drycleaning solvent or water will flush the loosened dyestuffs from the fabric, revealing its true (lusterless or faded) condition.

    When a fabric is prone to dye crocking, the condition of the garment will worsen each time it is worn. Subsequently, the fading of the dyestuffs in the crocked areas of the garment will become more severe each time that it is processed.

  • 14 Oct 2022 2:17 PM | Anonymous


    Pilling is a fabric surface problem caused by the balling up of loosened fiber ends which are held to the surface of the fabric. Chafing is a fabric abrasion-producing hairy or roughened fibers. Chafing often produces a color change caused by a change in the light reflectance of a fabric. Sometimes, a chafed fabric will reveal un-dyed portions of the yarn. This problem is referred to as frosting. Pilling and chafing occur from the friction and mechanical action of the dyeing process (during manufacture), normal wear, or during the dry cleaning, wet cleaning, and spotting processes. Pilling and chafing is common in soft-texture fabrics such as woolens but also occurs in worsted and hard-finish fabrics.


    Fiber blends of rayon and polyester are susceptible to pilling and chafing because the stronger polyester fibers abrade the weaker rayon fibers. The fabric condition can also occur in wool blends. Wools, cotton, acrylic, and blends of these fibers use short staple fibers in producing yarn. Short staple fibers work themselves out of the yarn and twist themselves with other fibers still held securely in the yarn. The resulting ball of fiber is called a pill.


    Examine the texture of all fabrics carefully for pilling and chafing. Pay attention to the specific wear areas of the garment (collar, cuffs, pockets, waistline, crotch, and underarms. Hold the garment at an angle to detect any chafing of the fiber or change in texture. Inform customers of any fabric change, which can be accentuated by the mechanical action of dry cleaning.


    Classify hard-finished rayon and polyester blends as soft wool. Place loose knits in a net bag. Run 3-5 minutes in a moisture-free load with solvent relative humidity below 70%. Reclaim at the minimum temperatures required by the type of solvent used.


    Use special padded silk brushes or wrap a handkerchief around a bristle brush when applying mechanical action. A bristle brush should be used for brushing only by angling the brush and using the side of the bristles. Use an ample amount of dryside or wetside lubricants to reduce friction on the spotted area. Apply leveling agents to a wet area and allow it to dry. Do not dry clean fabrics in a wet or damp condition.


    Garments that can be wet cleaned should be soaked in cool water (90º F.) with a mild synthetic detergent. Rinse by hand in the same temperature water. Extract the fabric lightly and hang it to dry.


    Routine procedures depend on the fabric, weave and knit construction.


    There are many corrective tools that can be obtained from a supply distributor or jobber. This includes special brushes, and electric razors. A pumice stone is also effective and can be obtained from your supplier. Hang the garment from a sturdy hanger and hold it taut when applying these aids. Use a spotting air gun to blow away the loosened pills. A localized chafed area can be corrected by using a safety razor. Extreme caution must be observed.


    Pilling and chafing occurs on many fabrics due to the weakness of the fabric blends. Rayon and polyester fabrics will readily pill because the stronger polyester yarns abrade the weaker rayon yarns. Some of this pilling may show up when the garment is dyed and made into the garment in manufacture. Manufacturers may remove some of the pills and try to sell the fabric. Pilling and chafing also occur on soft wools, wool blends, acrylics, and cotton due to the short-staple fibers breaking away from the loosely twisted yarn and forming pills. Careful inspection at the counter is necessary to identify garments on which pilling has occurred during normal wear. Careful classification in dry cleaning and limited mechanical action used during spotting will reduce the intensity of the problem. Corrective aids may correct the existing problem but not prevent it from recurring. 

  • 14 Oct 2022 2:16 PM | Anonymous

    NCA User Generated Content Plans

    User generated content what is it and why do you need it!

    User-generated content or UGC is any form of content created and shared by the users based on their experiences, opinions, ideas, or feedback. Digital platforms, especially social media networks, are the hub of user-generated content. In terms of marketing, UGC is the content that is relevant to the brand. UGC or consumer generated content is original, brand specific content created by customers/clients. It can be in the form of images, videos, reviews, and testimonials. Yes, even podcasts count.

    Where does UGC content come from?


    Think in terms of unboxing videos shared on TikTok, YouTube or Facebook; Or praise-filled posts on Instagram or google reviews. Your customers are usually the most prominent cohort you’ll look to gain UGC from, either because you’ve asked for it or because they’ve organically decided to share content about your brand.

    Brand loyalists

    Loyalists, advocates, or fans. However, you label your most dedicated customers, they’re typically the group that’s most enthusiastic about your business. Since loyalists are so passionate about worshiping at the alter of the brand, this audience segment is ripe to reach out to and ask for specific UGC content.


    Employee-generated content (EGC) shows the value and story behind your brand. For example, photos of employees packing or making up orders or a video of your team talking about why they love working for your company. This behind-the-scenes content helps establish brand identity and works across social and ads to showcase authenticity.

    UGC is used across all stages of the buyer’s journey to help influence engagement and increase conversions. The customer-centric content can be used on social media and other channels, such as email, landing pages, or checkout pages.

    Takes authenticity to the next level

    In the atmosphere we are all working in, brands have to fight to be seen online, and competition is fierce for audience attention. As a result, buyers are more selective about the brands they interact with and purchase from, especially the Gen-Z crowd.

    And it’s not just consumers who are passionate about authentic content. 60% of marketers agree that authenticity and quality are equally important elements of successful content. And there’s no other content type that’s more authentic than UGC from your customers.

    A word of caution:

    Don’t be tempted to fake your user-generated posts or campaign. Audiences will quickly sniff out the false sentiment, which could seriously damage your brand reputation. Instead, always ensure that your UGC comes from one of three cohorts: your customers, brand loyalists, or employees.

    People ultimately trust other people, so it’s essential to think of UGC as the modern-day word of mouth.

    And with consumers 2.4 times more likely to view user-generated content as authentic compared to content created by brands, the time to invest in an authenticity-driven social marketing strategy is now.

    Acts as a trust signal

    Brands need to work harder than ever to establish themselves as trustworthy. And with 93% of marketers agreeing that consumers trust content created by customers more than content created by brands, this signals that UGC is the perfect format for businesses to level up their trust score.

    Audiences turn to UGC as a trust signal in the same way they’d ask their friends, family, or professional network for an opinion. Over 50% of millennials base their decision to buy a product on recommendations from their family and friends, so this is where UGC can shine since it is precisely that: a personal recommendation.

    Increase conversions and influence purchasing decisions

    User-generated content is incredibly influential in the final stages of the buyer’s journey, where you’re looking to convert your audience and influence them into making a purchase.

    UGC acts as authentic social proof that your product is worthy of buying. For example, your audience sees people just like them wearing or using your product, which influences them to decide to buy.

    More cost-effective than influencer marketing

    The average cost of hiring an influencer can run into millions of dollars. The average cost of asking your customers to share posts of them enjoying your product? Next to nothing.

    UGC is a cost-effective way to scale your business and introduce a new marketing strategy to the mix. There’s also no need to invest dollars in hiring a flashy creative agency to produce brand assets or content for your campaigns.

    Simply connect with the most important people in your business: your audience. Most will be excited to be featured on your channel.

    For smaller brands or those just starting out, UGC is cheaper and easier to manage than investing in larger-scale brand awareness campaigns.

    Works in harmony with social commerce

    The future of online shopping is social commerce, a.k.a shopping directly on your favorite social channels. The main draw of social commerce is that it allows audiences to convert natively within a social media app, rather than going off-network to complete a purchase.

    Let’s say you’re scrolling through Instagram and pause on a cute new bathrobe. You tap to learn more about the product, decide to purchase, and complete the transaction in the app. That’s social commerce in action.

    UGC and social commerce work well together because UGC is influential in driving conversions. 80% of people say that UGC impacts their decision to purchase, making user-generated content and social commerce a match made in heaven.

    Types of user-generated content

    User-generated content is this season’s must-have strategy for social media marketers, and it comes in many styles and formats to help you find the right fit for your brand.

    • Images
    • Videos
    • Social media content (e.g., a Tweet about your brand)
    • Testimonials
    • Product reviews
    • Live streams
    • Blog posts
    • YouTube content

    Best user-generated content examples

    No matter their size, brands use user-generated content to drive awareness, increase conversions and social engagement, expand their reach, and cost-effectively grow their business.

    Why is user-generated content so important?

    User-generated content is effective for several reasons, the most prominent being that it's a version of social proof. It shows potential new consumers that current customers are happy with your product or service. And if you're happy, chances are they will be too. Endorsements (even from total strangers) matter to us as consumers.

    Websites and platforms dedicated solely to user reviews are becoming more popular. Nearly 95 percent of buyers are reading online reviews before making a purchase. Customers are looking to Yelp for local reviews, Amazon for consumer product reviews, and G2 for software and service reviews to help all types of businesses attract more user-generated content.

    Why is that? Think about it like this – similar people shop at similar stores. You have the same interests, wants, and needs, whether a new pair of jeans or an innovative software solution. It's why marketers build out user personas and adapt their strategies to match.

    NCA has a simple solution that can generate unlimited user content, ask us about our Video Review Automation Service (platform) Call Dawn 212-967-3002 or email me at

  • 23 Sep 2022 8:53 AM | Anonymous

    One of the most difficult problems to explain to the consumer is the appearance of stains or discolorations that occur after a garment is stored at home. The dry cleaner, who cleaned the garment prior to it being stored, is usually blamed for the damage.

    Insect Damage 

    Moth damage is usually isolated to wool, fur, and leather since animal or protein substances act as food for the larvae. Other types of insects, such as beetles, fleas, lice, and roaches can damage both animal and plant fabrics. There are numerous varieties of insects that can plague the household. All insects excrete water and waste, which can stain fabrics. Insects lay eggs and excrete blood, which is yellow or greenish in color. These types of stains are usually very difficult to remove.

    Sublimation of Dye

    Sublimation of dye is a term used to describe the evaporation of a solid into a gas without passing through the liquid phase. Gases in the air dissolve certain dyes. Black, red, and blue dyes have a greater tendency to dissolve. In this gaseous state, the dye redeposits on another fabric (usually whites) as yellow stains or streaks.


    Many fabrics including those made of animal, vegetable, and synthetic fibers are affected by a micro-organism a fungus growth referred to as mildew. The mildew stain can appear in many colors including tan, yellow, brown, pink, purple, and black. Warmth, dampness, and lack of fresh air combined with starch or sizing in a fabric present ideal condition for mildew growth.

    Damage from Plastic Bags

    The use of plastic bags creates poor conditions for garment storage.  Plastic resins can combine with some finishes on fabric and produce “yellowing”. Plastic bags also have the ability to confine stagnant, warm air. Moisture present in the air can result in an acid condition that can stain and discolor fabrics.

    Fume Fading

    Fume fading is a color change or color loss caused by the action of airborne gases found in varying degrees of concentration. These gases are more commonly the products of combustion when heated with wood, coal, gas, or oil. Frequently, a higher concentration of these gases exists in closets and drawers due to the lack of fresh air exchange.  Darker colors will turn pink or red but not necessarily evenly. Sometimes fume fading occurs after the

    garment has been hanging in a closet or after the dry cleaning or wet cleaning processes. In either case, there is no way to correct it. Discolorations may appear after drycleaning or pressing since the heat used in these processes accelerates the action of the gaseous chemical that has already attacked the dye. The dyes on silk and acetate fabrics are most affected by fume fading.

    Light Fading

    Exposure to artificial or natural light can cause the dyes in fabrics to fade or oxidize.

    Examine garments carefully when accepting them for processing. Mildew emits a characteristic dank or damp odor. The customer should be notified. Observe for any fading, yellowing, or unusual staining. Fading can be readily observed by comparing the exposed area with an unexposed area. Check wool and wool blend fabrics for any staining or yarn weakness, which could indicate moth infestation.  Beetle larvae attack all natural fibers including silk, wool, and cotton. As previously mentioned, roaches, fleas, lice, and mites are insects that may also damage fabrics.

    Box Storage
    Cleaners who promote box storage should first properly pre-spot the garments, then dry clean or wet clean them accordingly. The garment should never be stored without first cleaning it since staining substances and residual body odors can attract insects.  

    Many customers will improperly store garments and then blame the dry cleaner. Customers should be informed and educated that they should never put away clothes dirty. Garments should never be stored in a plastic bag. The bag the garment is in is for convenience and protection against soil. Garments should never be stored in damp or most areas and should also be kept away from light and heat.

  • 15 Sep 2022 8:04 AM | Anonymous

    Every dry cleaner who remembers the 1980’s may still have nightmares concerning the processing of garments that contained shoulder pads. Many remember the problems, complaints as well as claims concerning these padded garments. Well, for better or worse, shoulder pads are back!

    Shoulder pads were originally introduced during the 1930’s in both men’s and women’s garments. If you’re a fan of old movies, or look at old photos of that era, you will see that shoulder pads were used in the construction of garments such as dresses, blouses, as well as men’s and women’s jackets and coats. The idea was to accentuate the physical attributes of the wearer by making men’s shoulders look broader and women’s waistlines smaller.

    The padding of shoulders lasted into the late 1950’s. For the next two decades, shoulder pads fell out of fashion. During the 1980’s shoulder pads came back with a vengeance. Looking at the fashions of the day, shoulder pads were again present in men’s and women’s garments, sometimes even bigger and broader. In the past several years, shoulder pads have made a comeback, and are extremely popular in today’s fashions.

    There were, and still are numerous challenges concerning the processing of garments that contain shoulder pads. For this reason, we have included a detailed Technical Bulletin that should help in the processing of these garments.

  • 26 Aug 2022 5:05 PM | Anonymous

    Step 1: Welcome to the new and improved National Cleaners Association website Here you will be able to stay up to date on all things NCA and stay connected with other dry cleaners. In the top right corner, you will find the member login, you can navigate this by clicking on the small person-like figure.

    Step 2: After clicking the “login” tab, it will take you here. This is where you can submit the email address you provided to NCA. The password can be found in your email. If you cannot log in, or cannot find an email with the password, NCA most likely does not have your updated address, so please contact us.  Give us a call or email and we will update the email and send you a new link.

    If we have to update your email and send you a new link the email you receive will look like this.

    Step 3

    Once you log in, it will take you to this page. This is your member portal, this is where we can look up your contact information, and how you can network with other members.

    Under the member portal, you have the following tabs and links

    Management and forms

    Rules and Regulations by State

    Human Resources and Employee Training

    Marketing Toolkit

    Garment Alerts


    Coming Soon… Online Store and Updated Technical Bulletins


    If you are logged into your NCA membership account and you click the MyNCA icon that will take you to the NEW NCA Communication Portal.


    It uses the same login information that you set up for the NCA website 

    MyNCA looks like this:


    This platform allows you to communicate with peers, allied trades, and partners, get training, attend events both virtual and hybrid live/virtual, you can meet with partners and see equipment, attend webinars and so much more. The Best Part is- You do not have to be on Facebook!

    We look forward to seeing you on the platform. Be sure to contact us if you do not have your login information or need help getting around the platform.

  • 11 Aug 2022 12:53 PM | Anonymous

    Complete solvent reclamation in your dry cleaning machine depends on three factors:

    1.      The proper amount of airflow throughout the recovery housing and basket

    2.      The correct amount of time that is necessary to completely remove solvent from the load of garments

    3.      Maintaining the correct reclamation temperatures for the type of solvent used

    In order to achieve this, the lint filters (or lint bags) must be properly maintained in order to prevent the blockage of airflow during the reclamation cycle. Blocked lint filters will cause longer reclamation cycles due to slower airflow and the subsequent inability of the steam coil to maintain proper reclamation temperatures.

    In the State of New York, The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation mandates that both the lint filters and button traps be cleaned every third load in dry cleaning machines that use perchloroethylene. While this practice may seem to be severe, it will actually increase the efficiency of any dry cleaning machine, regardless of the type of solvent that is used, by increasing solvent mileage and reducing the duration of the reclamation cycle (this will reduce energy costs as well as “wear and tear” on the machine).

    The proper inspection and maintenance of the lint filter will also prevent many long term issues concerning the build-up of lint and other debris (such as pins, tags, and tissues) that may pass through a worn or damaged lint filter or bag. When lint or other debris are able to pass through the lint filter (see attached photo), they will deposit and accumulate onto the recovery housing, fan housing, both the steam and evaporator coils, as well the bearing housing and front of the basket. When a severe lint buildup occurs, any loosened lint can deposit onto the load of garments. Since the accumulation of lint within the machine will retain both solvent and moisture, the cleaned garments may retain the odor of solvent from the buildup of solvent vapor in the wheel, or a foul odor from a bacterial buildup from the lint retaining moisture. To correct a severe accumulation of lint in a dry cleaning machine, a mechanic must be called in to correct the problem. Since the machine must be partially disassembled, this procedure can be extremely costly.

    Since most dry cleaners clean their foam lint filters with a vacuum cleaner, this practice will erode the foam over time, causing the eventual failure of the filter. Foam lint filters can be inspected by shining a flashlight through them, or by holding them up to a light source. This will reveal any thin areas within the filter. Lint bags should be inspected for any rips, weak areas, or open seams. The inspection of the lint filters or bags should be done on a weekly basis. Since some manufacturers use a wire mesh screen in conjunction with the lint bag, the mesh should also be inspected for damage. It is advisable for the lint filters and bags be replaced on a yearly basis if you alternate two sets. If you only have one set, replace it every six months.

  • 2 Mar 2022 6:00 AM | Anonymous

    Bleaching Chemicals

    Bleaching chemicals are used to react with a stain in order to render it colorless (camouflage it). Some types of bleaching agents will also whiten or brighten fabrics. The bleaching action either adds oxygen to the stain (oxygen bleach) or removes oxygen from the stain (reducing bleach). Since bleaching must be done in the presence of water, the bleaching agent must either contain water or be mixed with water.

    Summary on Bleaches

    1. Bleaches do not remove soils; therefore, the garment must have been dry cleaned or laundered prior to the application of the bleaching agent.

    2. Test the fabric on an unexposed area of the garment to test for colorfastness.

    3. Since bleaching agents become more aggressive when used with acids or alkalis, test for colorfastness with the chemical used to catalyze the bleaching agent

    4. Bleaching agents will double in strength (and will become more aggressive) for every 18º F. of heat applied.

    5. Bleaching agents are accelerated by metals. Only use plastic buckets or epoxy plastic or stainless steel sinks.

    6. Because bleaching agents can harm fabrics and dyes, they are used as the last step for stain removal.

    Rules for Bleaching

    1. Always bleach clean garments.

    2. Never crowd the bleach bath.

    3. Bleaching agents should be thoroughly mixed and dissolved before immersing the garment in the solution

    4. Rinse and neutralize bleaching agents after use.

    Oxidizing Bleaches

    Hydrogen Peroxide

    1. Contains stabilizers that prevent the loss of potency.

    2. Should be kept refrigerated

    3. Accelerated by ammonia and heat (will become more aggressive on dyes- test)

    4. Use 3% 10 Volume Hydrogen Peroxide

    5. Used primarily as a spotting board bleach.

    6. Used to remove the last traces of tannin, protein, and scorch stains

    Sodium Perborate

    1. Is alkaline by nature

    2. Accelerated b an alkali (not recommended)

    3. Purchased in powdered form.

    4. Used primarily as a bath bleach for the removal of tannins, proteins, some inks, and topical medications.

    5. Used on silk and wool as a whitening agent

    6. Slow acting bleach

    7. Use 2ounces per gallon of water at 100ºF.

    8. Must be neutralized with an acid bath (sour).

    9. Safe on all fibers and some dyes.

    Sodium Percarbonate

    1. Similar to sodium perborate.

    2. Releases oxygen more rapidly

    3. Dissolves more rapidly in cooler temperatures of water.

    4. Use the same way as sodium perborate.

    Sodium Hypochlorite (Chlorine bleach-Not commonly used)

    1. Cannot be used on animal fibers such as wool or silk.

    2. Cannot come into contact with ammonia- will emit harmful toxic gasses!

    3. Dangerous to most dyes

    4. Alkaline by nature.

    5. Accelerated by acids.

    6. Bath mixture- ½ ounce per gallon of water (bath)

    7. Board mixture- dilute 50-1 for board use.

    8. Must always be followed by applying an anti-chlor (sodium bisulfite or sodium hydrosulfite).

    Potassium Permanganate

    1. Strongest of all bleaching agents- dangerous on most fibers and dyestuffs!

    2. Sold in liquid form

    3. Generally used on the spotting board

    4. Can be diluted for restorations. Test for colorfastness of fabric before using.

    5. Alkaline by nature- accelerated by acids.

    6. May cause brown discolorations that can be corrected by applying

    hydrogen peroxide.

    Reducing Bleaches

    Sodium Bisulfite

    1. Is sold in powdered form as a mild reducing bleach.

    2. Use 1-2 ounces per gallon of water

    3. Can be used as an anti-chlor.

    4. Can be used as a mild whitening agent.

    5. Can be used on the board for the removal of some tannin stains that contain sugars, dyes and inks

    6. While used primarily as a bath bleach, it can also be used on the board

    Sodium Hydrosulfite

    1. Is sold in powdered form under different trade names

    2. Used for the removal of dyes and fugitive prints, as well as some oxidized tannin stains.

    3. Can be used as a whitening agent

    4. Used primarily as a bath bleach (1-2 ounces per gallon of water.

    5. Can be used as a bleach on the spotting board.

    6. Acid by nature, accelerated by acids.

    7. Should never come into contact with metal tubs, metal garment trimmings, or fabrics that contain metals or metallic coatings.

    8. Safe on most fabrics, unsafe on most dyestuffs.

    Titanium Sulfate

    1. Used to remove dye stains

    2. Primarily used as a spotting board bleach

    3. Cannot be used as a whitening agent

    4. Never use with an alkali- can cause permanent discolorations.

    5. Is a blue-black liquid sold by various manufacturers?

    6. Is acid by nature and will become more aggressive when acids are applied.

    7. Dilute in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    8. Safe on most fabrics, unsafe on most dyes.

    9. Rust remover will often correct discolorations caused by alkali, chemical reactions with other bleaches and metals.

  • 1 Mar 2022 5:44 PM | Anonymous

    Eidl loans made in 2020 repayment begins 24 months from the date of the loan

    Eidl loans made in 2021 repayment begins 18 months from the date of the loan

    Log in to your portal and it should have directions on how to pay. You should have also received a statement that tells you to go to


    2. search for 1201 borrower payment form

    3. submit payment using borrower payments form

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