Jacquard

FABRIC FACTS

A jacquard weave is a weave construction in which woven designs are made into fabric by the use of special looms. Woven designs are made by changing the weave pattern in the figure to make the design stand out from the background by using yarns of different colors, twist or size. The background of damask is usually satin while the background of brocade can be a satin, plain or ribbed. The design patterns in these fabrics are woven with a satin construction, which gives the patterned designs their characteristic luster. A satin weave is one in which low twist yarns float over several yarns before being interlaced or interlocked with the next yarn by going under the yarn. The satin weave is characterized by long warp floats on the face of the fabric. Jacquard weave is made from all kinds of fibers and in many different weights for apparel and home furnishing. Jacquard weave is primarily used for women's wearing apparel and household fabrics.

FABRIC PROBLEMS

Jacquard woven fabrics lack durability due to the weakness of the satin weave construction. The low twist floating yarn in a satin weave construction is subject to: (1) snagging, (2) chafing, (3) shifting, and (4) pilling. This can occur from the friction and mechanical action of normal wear, drycleaning and spotting. Other factors which make the design pattern in a jacquard weave weak are:

(1) Low yarn count The more yarns that the floating yarns travel over before being interlaced makes the construction weaken. A high-count construction has the floating yarns travel over fewer yarns, interlacing them more frequently.

(2) Fiber content. A satin weave construction has less strength when made of silk, acetate or rayon than of cotton, polyester or nylon.

INSPECTION

Examine the jacquard weave (damask, brocade) for yarn shifting, chafing, pulled yarns and pilling. These frequently occur on areas subject to friction and abrasion, e.g., collar, arms, back or waist. It may be necessary to hold fabric at an angle to see imperfections. Notify customer of any problems.

DRYCLEANING

A jacquard weave may have the entire fabric woven with a satin construction or only the design pattern. The rule is to dryclean and process according to the weakest part of the fabric. In this case, the jacquard weave is always handled as a satin.

1) Turn garment inside out and place in net bag.

2) Dryclean in a high solvent (3 minutes). No moisture.

3) Short extraction (20 seconds).

4) Reclaim at the minimum temperatures required by the type of solvent used.

5) Hang immediately to avoid wrinkling.

SPOTTING

To avoid damage to the floating yarns, spot on the back of the fabric. Use a special padded silk brush or wrap a handkerchief around a bristle brush. Use steam gun at least 5" from fabric to avoid fabric damage. Limit mechanical action when using wetside detergents, since the yarns are weaker and more prone to damage when wet. Test colors and proceed cautiously when fabric contains silk, rayon or metallic yarn. Digesters are especially useful on protein stains since mechanical action is not necessarily safe to the fabric. Use leveling agents to avoid rings and only dryclean when fabric is dry. Follow similar precautions when spotting with dryside lubricants. Allow the lubricant time to soften the stain. This will reduce need for extensive mechanical action. Dryclean immediately after spotting with oily type paint remover or amyl acetate.

WETCLEANING

Wetclean according to fiber content and color limitations and labeling. Silk and rayon are usually hazardous while polyester, acetate and nylon are safe, providing that the accessories and trimming can be safely processed in water. When wetcleaning follow same precautions as drycleaning:

1) Turn inside out and soak in warm water (100° F. with a mild lubricant).

2) Agitate by hand.

3) Avoid extraction, drip dry.

FINISHING

Finish jacquard weave according to fiber content. Silk, rayon and cotton can withstand higher temperatures and pressure while acetate, nylon and polyester should only be pressed with light head pressure or warm irons.

SUMMARY

A jacquard weave is unique because the intricate designs are created by a satin weave construction. The satin weave construction is weak and may even weaken more depending on the thread count and fiber content. The floating yarns are susceptible to snagging, shifting, and pilling. A change in the satin weave construction is especially objectionable to customers, since the damage is more apparent when garment is worn and customer looks down on fabric at an angle. The mechanical action produced during normal wear can damage the weave construction. Jacquard woven garments must be carefully inspected at the counter. Use caution when spotting and drycleaning to prevent damage or accentuating damage.

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